High resistivity and low density, suitable for most applications
Other names: Alloy 815, AWS-825, Alchrome D
Better protective alumina surface oxide layer for longer life
Cost effective choice compared to A1
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Small appliances, Low temperature tubular elements, Quartz tube heaters
Temperature Coefficient Stability
- Max Temp : 2370°F / 1300°C
- Element Life : Very Good
- Temperature Coefficient Stability : Good
- Oxidation Properties : Very Good
- Suitability For Suspended Elements : Not Suitable
- Ductility After Use : Low
- Weldability After Use : Difficult
Kanthal D is a ferritic iron-chromium-aluminium alloy (FeCrAl alloy) for use at temperatures up to 1300°C (2370°F). The alloy is characterized by high resistivity and good oxidation resistance.
Kanthal D is used in home appliances and industrial furnaces. Typical applications in home appliances include metal sheathed tubular elements for dishwashers, elements embedded in ceramics for panel heaters, cartridge elements for plastic molding, heating cables and rope heaters in defrosting and deicing elements, mica elements used in irons, quartz tube heaters for space heating, industrial infrared dryers, in coils on molded ceramic fibre for boiling plates with ceramic hobs, in bead insulated coils for panel heaters,.
In industrial applications Kanthal D is used in, for example, terminals to furnace elements, porcupine elements for air heating, and in furnace heating elements.
C % Si % Mn % Cr % Al % Fe % Nominal composition 4.8 Bal. Min - - - 20.5 - Max 0.08 0.7 0.5 23.5 -
Wire size Yield strength Tensile strength Elongation Hardness Ø Rp0.2 Rm A mm (in) MPa (ksi) MPa (ksi) % Hv 1.0 (0.04) 485 (70) 670 (97) 23 230 4.0 (0.16) 450 (65) 650 (94) 18 230
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE
Temperature °C (°F) 900 (1652) MPa (ksi) 34 (4.9)
Ultimate tensile strength - deformation rate 6.2 x 10-2/min
CREEP STRENGTH - 1% ELONGATION IN 1000 H
Temperature °C (°F) 800 (1472) 900 (1652) MPa (psi) 1.2 (170) 0.5 (73)
Density g/cm3 (lb/in3) 7.25 (0.262) Electrical resistivity at 20°C Ω mm2/m (Ω circ. mil/ft) 1.35 (812) Poisson's ratio 0.30
Temperature °C 20 100 200 400 600 800 1000 Temperature °F 68 212 392 752 1112 1472 1832 GPa 220 210 205 190 170 150 130 Msi 32 30 30 28 25 22 19
TEMPERATURE FACTOR OF RESISTIVITY
Temperature °C 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 Temperature °F 212 392 572 752 932 1112 1292 1472 1652 1832 2012 2192 2372 Ct 1 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.08
COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION
Temperature °C (°F) Thermal Expansion x 10-6/K (10-6 /°F) 20 - 250 (68-482) 11 (6.1) 20 - 500 (68-932) 12 (6.7) 20 - 750 (68-1382) 14 (7.8) 20 - 1000 (68-1832) 15 (8.3)
Temperature °C 50 600 800 1000 1200 Temperature °F 122 1112 1472 1832 2192 W m-1 K-1 11 20 22 26 27 Btu h-1ft-1°F-1 6.4 11.6 12.7 15 15.6
SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY
Temperature °C 20 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Temperature °F 68 392 752 1112 1472 1832 2192 kJ kg-1 K-1 0.46 0.56 0.63 0.75 0.71 0.72 0.74 Btu lb-1 °F-1 0.11 0.13 0.15 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.18 Melting point °C (°F) 1500 (2732) Max continuous operating temperature in air °C (°F) 1300 (2372) Magnetic properties The material is magnetic up to approximately 600°C (1112°F)(Curie point). Emissivity - fully oxidized material 0.70
Resistivity vs. temperature chart for KANTHAL D and other KANTHAL alloys
Knowledge & tips
Important considerations when designing heating elements:
1. Maximum operating temperature
It is critical to choose a material that can withstand the required operating temperature and know that the wire will operate at a higher temperature than the environment that it is heating.
2. Will the element be suspended, fully supported or embedded
Suspended elements are free hanging between two fixed points. Nikrothal (NiCr) alloys are most suitable as they have better hot strength and are able to support their own weight.
Fully Supported elements are held up along the entire length of the heating element and do not require as much hot strength. Kanthal (FeCrAl) alloys work well in these applications and have the added benefit of higher maximum operating temperatures.
Embedded elements are completely encapsulated in some type of bedding compound. Both Nikrothal and Kanthal alloys are suitable for these applications.
3. Operating atmosphere
Most of the data provided by Kanthal regarding our alloy performance assumes that the elements will be operating in still air. Different atmospheres and air movement can dramatically affect the performance of the element material.
4. Watt loading on the surface of the wire
Watt loading of the element is the key for understanding what wire diameter is required for a specific element design. Kanthal Handbook for Resistance Heating Alloys for Electric Appliances provide reference watt loadings for various element types which can be used as a guide. You will find the handbook in the next right Documents tab.
5. Available power supply and required wattage
In order to understand the resistance necessary for a specific application you need to know the wattage output you require and the available voltage Ohm’s law can then be used to calculate the resistance. Resistance = volts2/watts. More details on Ohm’s law can be found in the Kanthal Appliance Handbook.
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